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Gruter, T. Intersentential coreference expectations reflect mental models of events.
Temporality and Literary Theory
Hong, J. Time, perspectives, verbs, and imagining events. Conference paper in the Proceedings of the annual conference of the Canadian Linguistics association. Ontario, Canada: St. King, S. The stand. New York: Signet. Kintsch, W. The role of knowledge in discourse comprehension: A construction-integration model. Psychological review , 95 2 , Kurby, C.
Segmentation in the perception and memory of events. Trends in cognitive sciences , 12 2 , 72— Starting from scratch and building brick by brick in comprehension. Madden, C. Verb aspect and the mental representation of situations. The expression of time , 3, — How does verb aspect constrain event representations?
Magliano, J. Aging and perceived event structure as a function of modality. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition , 19 1—2 , — Is Reading the Same as Viewing? Miller, L. Indexing space and time in film understanding. Applied Cognitive Psychology , 15 5 , — Verb aspect and situation models. Discourse processes , 29 2 , 83— When goals collide: Monitoring the goals of multiple characters.
The impact of continuity editing in narrative film on event segmentation. Cognitive Science , 35 8 , — The role of situational continuity in narrative understanding. The construction of mental representations during reading , — McNamara, D.
Time and narrative
Toward a comprehensive model of comprehension. Psychology of learning and motivation , 51, — Millis, K. The influence of connectives on sentence comprehension. Journal of Memory and Language , 33 1 , — Morrow, D. Prepositions and verb aspect in narrative understanding. Journal of Memory and Language , 24 4 , — Grammatical morphemes and conceptual structure in discourse processing. Cognitive Science , 10 4 , — Spatial models, prepositions, and verb-aspect markers.
Discourse Processes , 13 4 , — Mozuraitis, M. Discourse Processes , 50 1 , 1— Newtson, D. Attribution and the unit of perception of ongoing behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 28 1 , The perceptual organization of ongoing behavior. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology , 12 5 , — Paolacci, G. Running experiments on amazon mechanical turk. Pettijohn, K. Narrative event boundaries, reading times, and expectation.
Time-course of semantic composition: The case of aspectual coercion. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research , 35, — Radvansky, G. Across the event horizon. Current Directions in Psychological Science , 21 4 , — Reading times and the detection of event shift processing. Different kinds of causality in event cognition. Discourse Processes , 51 7 , — Event cognition. Oxford University Press. Rinck, M. Who when where: An experimental test of the event-indexing model. Rohde, H.
Event structure and discourse coherence biases in pronoun interpretation. In: Sun, R. Sanford, A. Understanding written language: Explorations in comprehension beyond the sentence. Chichester, England: Wiley. Speer, N. Activation of human motion processing areas during event perception. Temporal changes as event boundaries: Processing and memory consequences of narrative time shifts.
Journal of Memory and Language , 53 1 , — Suh, S.
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Inferences during reading: Converging evidence from discourse analysis, talk-aloud protocols, and recognition priming. Journal of memory and language , 32 3 , — Trabasso, T. Logical necessity and transitivity of causal relations in stories. Discourse processes , 12 1 , 1— Vendler, Z. Verbs and times. The philosophical review , 66 2 , — Yap, F. Aspectual asymmetries in the mental representation of events: Role of lexical and grammatical aspect. Memory and Cognition , 37 5 , — Zacks, J.
Segmentation in reading and film comprehension. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General , 2 , Event structure in perception and conception. Psychological bulletin , 1 , 3. Zwaan, R. Processing narrative time shifts. Five dimensions of narrative comprehension: The event-indexing model. Narrative comprehension, causality, and coherence: Essays in honor of Tom Trabasso , 93— The construction of situation models in narrative comprehension: An event-indexing model. Psychological science , 6 5 , — Dimensions of situation model construction in narrative comprehension.
Journal of experimental psychology: Learning, memory, and cognition , 21 2 , Situation models in language comprehension and memory. Psychological bulletin , 2 , Feller, D. Aspect and Narrative Event Segmentation. Collabra: Psychology , 5 1 , p. Collabra: Psychology. Collabra: Psychology , 5 1 , Log in Log in Don't have an account? Register Here. Start Submission Become a Reviewer. Reading: Aspect and Narrative Event Segmentation. Authors: Daniel P.
Todd R. Joseph P. Abstract Time is central to human cognition, both in terms of how we understand the world and the events that unfold around us as well as how we communicate about those events. As such, language has morphological systems, such as temporal adverbs, tense, and aspect to convey the passage of time. The current study explored the role of one such temporal marker, grammatical aspect, and its impact on how we understand the temporal boundaries between events conveyed in narratives. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants read stories that contained a target event that was either conveyed with a perfective e.
Events described in the perfective aspect were more often perceived as event boundaries than events in the imperfective aspect, however, event duration long vs. Experiment 3 demonstrated that readers were sensitive to grammatical aspect and event duration in the context of a story continuation task. Overall this study demonstrates that grammatical aspect interacts with world knowledge to convey event structure information that influences how people interpret the end and beginning of events.
How to Cite: Feller, D. Published on 18 Mar Peer Reviewed. CC BY 4. In this great stillness it was impossible to tell how far away. Experiment 1 Participants read selected stories from Magliano and Schleich and were instructed to mark sentences that indicated an event boundary. Design A within participants design was used with grammatical aspect perfective, imperfective as the independent variable. Materials Ten passages were selected from Magliano and Schleich for the purpose of this study. Procedure Participants were instructed that stories are comprised of events and that experimenters were interested in understanding when readers understand that the events have changed.
Despite the huge progress that has been made in understanding this fundamental cognitive capacity Allport, ; Posner, many questions remain unanswered and under researched. One constraint that has determined the focus of effort by attention researchers has been the ubiquitous use of the experimental trial.
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In almost all branches of experimental psychology, including studies of attention, behavior is tested in short, apparently uncorrelated, snapshots. First, it is a result of the apparatus used: the tachistoscope and then later on the personal computer.
In both cases the next trial had to be prepared and this necessitated a pause in the experiment, the so called inter-trial interval. Such an approach has, however, shifted the focus of research away from the continuous nature of thought, and attention, as described by James in the quote above. Outside the laboratory, cognition, and, more specifically, attentional demands, are of course far less quantized and our visual world is more continuous and dynamic.
In this paper we set out to study dynamic attentional processes in these more continuous circumstances. One real-life circumstance in which attention appears to be sustained over an extended time period, often with little obvious mind-wandering, is when people watch a movie. Cutting, DeLong, and Nothelfer and Smith have argued that film has been constructed to facilitate very prolonged periods of attention.
Film then provides one context to study the attentional engagement over longer time periods. Film provides a rich, visual and auditory, dynamic environment for the viewer in which typically there is a continuous story or narrative; is repeatable across participants and is also interesting and compelling for participants. This is more akin to the dynamism of a natural scene than more traditional trial-based experiments. As a result the patterns of results found with film should not be assumed to be identical to the expected behavior in a real-world setting but rather to provide a controlled if somewhat artificial model environment in which to study fluctuations in attention over prolonged durations and the role of factors that may influence those fluctuations.
The way that people pay attention to film can be thought of as being determined by both low-level features and high-level properties of the film. Low-level features are the surface qualities of the moving image, these have been shown to be good predictors of the allocation of overt attention i. For movies, the audio sound track also fluctuates in intensity and so has variable auditory salience. This may also play an important part in determining fluctuations in attention via both its low-level properties e. We will first turn to the evidence that low-level features influence where attention is focused on a scene.
The specific hypothesis is that areas on the scene that have higher levels of intensity or salience based on a set of low-level features will attract attention. In a series of papers, Itti and others e. Many different saliency models now exist. In a review and meta-analysis, Itti and Borji concluded that most of these different models make good, but slightly different predictions. One current iteration of the model developed by Itti et al. The architecture of iNVT Itti et al. There are 72 basic spatial and time-dependent features simulating low-level human vision.
These features form a set of center-surround detectors, covering the saliency of different spatial and temporal features at different degrees of scale, direction of motion and temporal dynamics. The feature set includes color detectors, for blue-yellow and red-green color opponency, contrast detectors, intensity, orientation, motion and flicker. In order to achieve different degrees of scale, iNVT Itti et al. The pyramid is then processed for the distinct features, using Gabor filters and center-surround feature detectors, applied across fine to coarse maps.
This mirrors the functions of the neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus LGN , and visual cortex which act as low-level visual-feature detectors. In summary, the biologically inspired algorithm within the model, is designed to mirror the human visual system, generating a unique set of 72 distinct features for the visual scenes. As a result the model, and, in particular, the output of these maps, provides a method to compute the visual salience of a video sequence for different visual features at different spatial scales.
High-level properties also play a key role in the allocation of attention. In the now classic demonstration, Yarbus showed that viewing behavior on the same static image was radically different under different task instructions. In a walking task conducted in Virtual Reality VR , Jovancevic, Sullivan, and Hayhoe showed that attention was not drawn to an unexpected pedestrian that suddenly appeared on a collision course with the participant, suggesting that salience played little or no role in this real-world task. When participants are engaged in a more natural continuous task the allocation of attention is determined by the relative balance between high-level properties and lower-level features of the stimulus.
Wischnewski, Belardinelli, Schneider, and Steil developed a human-inspired theory of attention for robotic applications which integrated three levels of influence: low-level, static-driven saliency, dynamic visual factors and task-driven factors. The Event Theory of Zacks and Tversky provides a framework to understand the influence of high-level properties on attention. Within this theory the continuous stream of dynamic information presented to the senses can be thought of as being structured by related units of information, known as events.
Events have construct validity, in that different observers can agree on where the event boundaries should be placed. These boundaries sometimes relate to the task, sometimes to a linguistic boundary, but sometimes seem arbitrary. For instance, Brewer and Dupree studied memory retrieval of actions in video and showed that actions within schema were more easily recalled than those that were not.
For example, Hasson, Nir, Levy, Fuhrmann, and Malach used inter-subject correlations of BOLD signals to study attention in movies and Smith and Henderson used eye tracking to study selective attention to movies. The dual-task paradigm requires participants to carry out two tasks concurrently, usually labeled the primary and the secondary tasks, fluctuations in performance in the secondary task are taken as evidence that attentional resources are being focused on the primary task to the detriment of the secondary task.
The underlying assumption here is that there is a limited capacity of attention, held in a central general pool. As a consequence the more demanding the primary task, the worse the performance on the secondary task due to a deficit in remaining resources. The dual-task method remains a simple method to study attention, and has found some renewed interest for use with studying attention and film.
For instance, Lang used dual-task to study attention in short media messages used in television advertisements. Bezdek and Gerrig used the dual-task paradigm to study the narrowing of attention, during moments of high suspense in film clips. In this study we used the dual-task paradigm to study attention while participants viewed extended and continuous segments of a movie.
The dual-task allowed us to probe the changes in attentional engagement over time during the movie. There were two main research questions addressed by the paper. Firstly, do the high-level properties, such as the narrative or event structure of the movie, increase or decrease attention as measured by secondary reaction time RT in a film? This was also examined by looking at the slope of RTs over elapsed time.
In other words are people more engaged if a film has a narrative and do people become more or less engaged over time while watching a movie? Secondly, what are the relative roles of low-level features and high-level properties on attention while viewing film? The first question was investigated by comparing dual-task secondary reaction times for unshuffled i.
Then by comparing the slopes of dual-task secondary reaction times over the duration of the film, in both unshuffled and shuffled movie versions. One important part of the shuffling manipulation was that for each of the media segments used as the units for shuffling, the dual-task probe signals were positioned midway between the start and end of the segment. This meant that all visual properties of the film surrounding the probe position remained constant.
This allowed the investigation of the roles of the higher-level factors independent of the low-level features. There were two distinct and opposing predictions. The specific prediction here being that there would be steeper slopes of reaction times over elapsed time for the secondary task while watching an unshuffled film compared to the shuffled film. The specific prediction here being that there will be steeper slopes of reaction times over elapsed time for the secondary task while watching the shuffled film compared to the unshuffled film.
The second question concerned the relative contribution of the low-level, audio-visual features on attentional engagement. This was investigated by processing the film using the iNVT Itti et al. Using these variables we carried out a comprehensive multiple regression analysis. This analysis was exploratory in nature and so did not seek to predict exactly which features determined behavior but rather asked the extent to which such features taken together could account for behavior in our task. Eighty participants took part in the experiment. All participants had normal vision and were studying experimental psychology at the University of Bristol, UK and completed the experiment for course credit.
There were four groups of 20 participants. The stimuli were displayed on a The Good is a fast-paced Western, with a strong narrative, and strong emotional engagement. In contrast, About Time is slower-paced, a romantic comedy, with a slightly confusing, narrative structure, as the main protagonist plays with time travel to try and win the girl. This film again is generally unknown to undergraduate participants. Previous work on film Smith, ; Cutting et al. The Good , has an average shot length of 3. Within this study, attentional probes are used to make measurements at s intervals, the irregular pattern of the cuts within these films should not, therefore, lead to any systematic biases.
There were four between-participant groups in the experiment. The first group, The Good Unshuffled group, watched the first 40 min of the film, The Good Leone, in the original order. The second group, The Good Shuffled group watched the first 40 min of the same film in a shuffled order. The third group, the About Time Unshuffled group, watched the first 40 min of the film About Time Curtis, in the original order. The fourth group, the About Time Shuffled group, watched the first 40 min of the same film in a shuffled order.
Concerning the sound track, one approach would be to remove the sound track from the film, and just play participants the visual component. However, at the very least this approach is likely to disrupt the narrative of the film; at the most extreme the film might no longer make sense. So for the current study we have chosen to include the sound track and play the film in the form in which it would be normally watched and enjoyed. For all the unshuffled films, audio-tones were mixed into the sound track of the film at regular s intervals for all films.
The film stimuli were the same for all participants. The sound was played via a set of stereo headphones with the volume set to a comfortable listening level. For the shuffled versions of the films, we started with each of the unshuffled versions of the film video and sound including the added audio-tones , made working copies and then digitally cut the film into s segments using a Matlab script, by bisecting mid-way in time between the regularly spaced audio-tones. The media segments were then randomly ordered, similar to perfectly shuffling a pack of cards, using the Knuth Algorithm P algorithm Knuth, , giving a shuffled version of the movie.
As a result, within the 7. With this manipulation the low-level features are kept constant, but the high-level narrative was disturbed. Participants were told that their main task was to watch and enjoy the film, after which they would have to answer some questions to foster attentiveness to the movie the questions were never asked. Participants were played sample audio-tones at the start, so that they could subsequently discriminate between high and low tones.
The first data analysis was to investigate the effect of high-level factors on dual-task secondary RTs over elapsed time. The approach here was to investigate changes in RTs over time from each of the conditions by plotting RTs against elapsed time, and comparing the slopes. Comparison of the unshuffled and shuffled conditions for each film allowed the effects of narrative to be explored. Additionally, the RTs from the shuffled conditions were returned to their narrative position on the elapsed time axis — in a process that we have called deshuffling.
By plotting deshuffled RTs against elapsed time, any trend in attention that related to the media properties, rather than the narrative order, could be examined. Mean values of the individual secondary reaction times were calculated for each group and plotted against time and then compared with the predictions from a linear regression, performed using SPSS.
It should be noted that the overall effect on RTs of shuffling the films will be examined through the comprehensive regression described in the second-stage data analysis. The second data analysis investigated the relative contribution of the low-level, audio-visual features and high-level properties on the dual-task secondary reaction times.
The films were computationally processed by the iNVT Itti et al. The regression model was populated using the 72 saliency-feature variables, the RMS variable, the film choice The Good or About Time , whether the film was shuffled or not and elapsed time. Error rates across all conditions and participants were very low and so were not be analyzed further. For The Good unshuffled group , the mean error rate was 0. Our initial analysis investigated the extent to which secondary RTs over the course of the film were consistent across participants. The justification for this was due diligence to test the construct validity of the secondary reaction-time measurements.
We calculated the correlation in RT between every participant pair and reported the mean of these correlations in each condition. There are reliable inter-participant correlations of secondary reaction times within each group. Next we proceeded to examine the slopes of the dual-task secondary reaction times for the four conditions. Visual inspection of the unshuffled film conditions shows that the mean RT tends to increase with elapsed time but less so for the shuffled group.
Linear regressions for each of the four conditions show slopes, ms. The slopes are larger for the unshuffled condition than the shuffled one. In the case of The Good shuffled condition, confidence intervals CIs suggest that the slope does not differ from zero. For About Time , CIs suggest that the slope is above zero, but still lower than the unshuffled value, i. However, given the CI values, the About Time findings are neither significantly different, nor reduced to zero as is the case for the film The Good.
In order to further explore the shuffled data, the reaction times were deshuffled , a process that reordered the reaction times to their original positions with respect to the elapsed time of the movie in the unshuffled films. These data are plotted in Fig. It appears then that the increase in response time across viewing in the unshuffled condition is not solely a property of the local properties of the film. Deshuffled films, mean secondary reaction time RT ms across participants, for each time point, plotted against elapsed time s.
We next plotted these deshuffled data against the unshuffled data values, as shown in Fig. The probed mean RTs that are correlated are from the identical points in the source movie, but were presented at different elapsed times in the experiment in the shuffled compared to the unshuffled condition. This shared component between the unshuffled and shuffled conditions supports the idea that some of the variability in response times in the unshuffled case is a result of the local context around the time of the presentation of the probe.
Together these results suggest a role for both the broader narrative and the local context in determining response time. Deshuffled mean secondary reaction time RT ms plotted against the unshuffled mean secondary RT ms. The analysis above suggests that a component of the variability in response times is a result of the local audio-visual context in which the probe was delivered, together with the narrative. To investigate this further, we carried out a regression analysis to predict reaction times using low-level perceptual features derived from the iNVT Itti et al.
As a first step, the film clips were processed, using the iNVT Itti et al. The visual features were then further processed to produce 72 mean-feature variables, averaged over a 1-s window, prior to each of the dual-task probe points. Philosophy: General Philosophy. You may purchase this title at these fine bookstores. Outside the USA, see our international sales information. University of Chicago Press: E. About Contact News Giving to the Press. Design for the Crowd Joanna Merwood-Salisbury. Geocultural Power Tim Winter.